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31 may. 2005

Colaboraciones en Todo BI: Jose María Arce

Tenemos la suerte de iniciar la serie de colaboraciones en Todo Bi con Jose María Arce Argos, gran experto en sistemas Business Intelligence.

Almacenamientos del Data Warehouse (1)


José María Arce Argos
Gerente Área Business Intelligence
Servicios de Integración
Bull España S.A.
jose-maria.arce@bull.es

No cabe duda de que el examen final del Data Warehouse o del Data Mart viene a través del uso de los usuarios finales, y que ellos utilizan unas herramientas de explotación más o menos sofisticadas, las cuales van evolucionando a una velocidad, en ocasiones, de vértigo. Pero tampoco es menos cierto de que las tripas del sistema siguen aportando un alto porcentaje éxito del DW, siendo su diseño un ejercicio de habilidad y en ocasiones algo más que habilidad, convirtiéndose en todo un arte, el arte de saber plasmar las posibles necesidades del negocio de nuestras organizaciones en un perfecto modelos de datos.

Al igual que en los sistemas transaccionales, denominados ya clásicos, donde la base de datos constituye el éxito de la aplicación, en los sistemas de información, hoy Data Warehouse, pasa absolutamente lo mismo. Podemos tener una aplicación de inventarios realizada en Visual Basic, nos podrá gustar más o menos su interface, podrá ir más deprisa o más despacio e incluso podremos rehacer las aplicaciones en otro lenguaje más adecuado o sofisticado, pero si tenemos una buena base de datos nos ahorraremos muchos disgustos.



Tras varios años analizando, diseñando e implementando varias decenas de Data Warehouse, he de reconocer que no es oro todo lo que reluce. Todos hablan de Data Warehouse, de las maravillas de sus aplicaciones y de sus soluciones. Pero tras ver sus sistemas y en algunas ocasiones todo parecido con un Data Warehouse , como dicen en la películas, es simple coincidencia.

No voy a aburrir al lector de estas líneas con lo de siempre, con las teorías del DW, intentado explicar exactamente como abordar un Data Warehouse, pues existen multitud de libros. Toda persona que quiera aprender, de verdad, debería leer los “tech Topic” escritos por W.H.Inmon, que sin lugar a dudas es uno de los pioneros de este nuevo concepto informático.

A pesar de esto, creo interesante reflexionar hoy sobre los almacenamientos entidad relación (E/R), las estrellas del DW, etc. Espero y deseo que nos sirva a todos para esclarecer algunos tópicos u opiniones vertidas de una forma más o menos interesada.

Me asombra leer este tipo de comparaciones carentes, inicialmente, de fundamento. Una estrella puede estar implementada sobre un modelo de datos relacional, entonces para que comparar una cosa con la otra. Supongamos que no disponemos de un gestor de datos multidemensional ¿dónde vamos a implementar nuestra estrella?. Y si estuviéramos hablando de multidimensionales, se suele aplicar en nefasto termino de “cubo”, pero un cubo puede dar cobertura a varias estrellas. Por lo tanto, entiendo que el termino exacto de estrella corresponde a su representación visual, con algo de imaginación, sobre un conjunto de tablas en un gestor, aunque pueda residir en más lugares o tipos de almacenamiento.
Hablar de E/R sin apellidos no tiene mucho sentido. Deberíamos reseñar que podemos tener bajo una base de datos relacional multitud de estructuras normalizadas atendiendo a las diversos tipos de formas normales (métrica) o no. Según nuestro criterio entre estas posibles estructuras también se encuentran las estrellas, los copos de nieves, etc. (continúa...)

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